Phonemic Awareness is the core and causal factor that separates ntormal readers from disabled readers.
Keith Stanovich- National Institutes of Health (NIH) Researcher
Dyslexia is a specific language-based learning disability with neurological origins and genetic links. People with dyslexia process language differently. They lack age-appropriate phonemic awareness, the ability to isolate and manipulate individual sounds within the spoken word. This weakness in phonological processing prevents the ability to apply phonics in order to read by sounding out words. Difficulties with accurate or fluent word recognition, poor spelling, and poor decoding abilities result.
The word dyslexia means “difficulty with language”. People with dyslexia usually struggle with reading and spelling. Directionality confusion, difficulty with word retrieval, and poor visual memory for words can also characterize dyslexia. In contrast to the challenges are marked abilities–such as high-level thinking skills in reasoning, comprehension, problem solving, general knowledge, and understanding vocabulary. In her book, Overcoming Dyslexia, Sally Shaywitz explains, “In dyslexia, an encapsulated weakness in decoding is surrounded by many strengths.”
For more information and the warning signs for dyslexia, please visit
Susan Barton’s Bright Solutions for Dyslexia.